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Monday, 3 August 2020

Periodic winds: Monsoon winds

Periodic winds: Monsoon winds
In certain regions winds blow in a particular direction over short periods or
throughout particular seasons. These are periodic winds. These winds form
because of the uneven heating and cooling of the land and the oceans. 
Periodic winds are winds that repeat at regular intervals of time and can be seasonal or diurnal. Monsoon winds are examples for seasonal winds.
What is the monsoon?
The term 'monsoon' is derived from the Arab word 'mousom'. It means 'winds that change direction in accordance with a season'. Monsoon is the seasonal reversal of wind in a year.
The Arab scholar Hippalus was the first to observe the shift in the direction of Monsoon winds.
Monsoonal winds blow over South Asia, South-East Asia, Australia and East Africa. It was during the time when monsoonal winds became active that merchants used to travel by sailboats for trade purposes in the Indian Ocean.

Many factors are responsible for the formation of the monsoon wind like
• The apparent movement of the sun
• Coriolis force
• Differences in heating
Sun's rays fall vertically to the North of the Equator during certain months due to the tilt of the Earth's axis. This leads to an increase in temperature along the region through which Tropic of Cancer passes. The pressure belts also shift slightly northwards in accordance with this. During summer, low pressure develops in southern and southeastern Asia in this manner. However, in comparison with the land region, the Indian Ocean experiences high pressure. This pressure difference causes winds to blow from the Indian Ocean to the continent.
The southeast trade winds also cross the equator and move towards the north as the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) moves northwards during the summer in the northern hemisphere. As the trade winds cross the Equator they get deflected and are transformed into southwest monsoon winds due to the Coriolis Effect. The low pressure formed over the land due to the intense day temperature attracts these sea winds and further contributes to the formation of the southwest monsoon winds.
During winter the land regions of the northern hemisphere cool down. In relation to the oceans of the southern hemisphere where the sun's rays fall vertically, the land regions of the northern hemisphere become cooler and as a result a high-pressure region. This difference causes winds to blow from the land to the ocean. In the northern hemisphere, these winds blow from the northeast direction. Due to this, it is called the northeast monsoon. This wind causes rain in the eastern coast of India and in the states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala.

Meghasandesam, the epic poem by Kalidasa, is a creative visualization of monsoon winds that change direction according to the season as a messenger.


📌Related Topics
👉 Permanent winds
👉 Atmospheric pressure and winds
👉 Weather and climate
👉 Global pressure belts
👉 Variations in atmospheric pressure
👉 The atmosphere 
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